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Table 5 Diversification dynamics of Calisto as reconstructed by the R package laser

From: Causes of endemic radiation in the Caribbean: evidence from the historical biogeography and diversification of the butterfly genus Calisto(Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Satyrini)

Diversification rates forCalisto
  LH AIC r1 r2 r3 a X k t_shift1 t_shift2 ΔAIC (yule-3-rates)
pb −32.301 66.602 0.07 - - - - - - - 13.32
bd −32.301 68.602 0.07 - - 0 - - - - 15.32
ddx −28.705 61.41 0.394 - - - 0.599 - - - 8.124
*ddl −26.579 57.158 0.175 - - - - 40.119 - - 3.871
spvar −28.84 63.681 0.229 - - 0.004 - - - - 10.39
exvar −32.36 70.721 0.069 - - 0.014 - - - - 17.43
bothvar −28.826 65.653 0.227 - - 0.004 - - - - 12.37
yule-2-rates −26.056 58.112 0.094 0.014 - - - - 4.079 - 4.826
*yule-3-rates −21.643 53.286 0.21 0.083 0.007 - - - 20.903 4.058 0
Diversification rates for Calisto excluding Cuban clade
  LH AIC r 1 r 2 r 3 a X k t_shift 1 t_shift 2 ΔAIC (ddl)
pb −33.893 69.787 0.056 - - - - - - - 11.19
bd −33.893 71.787 0.056 - - 0 - - - - 13.19
ddx −29.428 62.855 0.55 - - - 0.889 - - - 4.258
*ddl −27.299 58.597 0.186 - - - - 24.646 - - 0
spvar −29.332 64.664 0.253 - - 0.004 - - - - 6.066
exvar −33.951 73.902 0.055 - - 0.018 - - - - 15.3
bothvar −29.323 66.646 0.251 - - 0.004 - - - - 8.048
*yule-2-rates −28.178 62.355 0.073 0.016 - - - - 5.11 - 3.758
*yule-3-rates −25.313 60.626 0.21 0.055 0.008 - - - 20.903 5.079 2.029
  1. The best models for our data is either DDL or yule-3-rates, which are highlighted in bold text and with an asterisk (*). Both models, nonetheless, predict a decreasing in diversification rates through time. Excluding the Cuban clade resulted in DDL, yule-2 or yule-3-rates as the main processes for the diversification of Hispaniolan lineages. LH: the best recovered log-likelihood, r i : net diversification rate at time ii - μi), a: extinction fraction (λi / μi), X: parameter controlling the magnitude of rates (only in DDX), k: parameter analogous to species “carrying capacity” (only in DDL), t_shifti: diversification shift at time i. The diversification models are pure-birth (pb), birth-death (bd), density-dependent speciation rate model following exponential (ddx) or logistic variants (ddl), exponential decline of speciation with constant extinction (spvar), exponential increase of extinction with constant speciation (exvar), speciation and extinction changes through time (bothvar), and pure birth models with n shifts in speciation (yule-n-rate).