Color-phylogeny correlation. Morphological parameters and pigments mapped to phylogenetic trees on the species-level of Condamine et al. (A) and by Möhn et al. (B); see also Additional file 1 and Additional file 2: Table S1. The yellow and red circles indicate loss of the yellow or red pigment. In A, G1-G4 indicates the group classification according to Silva-Brandao et al. . C Phylogenetic tree that best resembles measured morphological parameters and pigment distribution with least instances of innovations. The double dagger indicates a suggested change in the developmental conditions of the wing scales resulting in a change from perforated multilayers to gyroid photonic crystals in the scale lumen (see text).