Parides species with differently structured and colored wing scales. A Parides quadratus. The dorsal hindwings have yellow colored patches, the rest of the butterfly is black. B Reflectance spectra of yellow and black wing areas. The color of the spectral curves corresponds to the scale color. C Light micrograph of the wing area with yellow scales. D SEM image of a single scale. E P. erithalion zeuxis. The dorsal forewings have an olive-colored area with additionally a small yellow spot, and the hindwings have red spots. F Reflectance spectra of the olive-colored, yellow and red wing areas. G Micrograph of the wing area with red scales. H. SEM image of a red scale showing the ridge lamellae forming multilayers. I P. aeneas bolivar. The dorsal forewings have green-colored areas, and the hindwings have burgundy spots. J Reflectance spectra of the green and red wing areas. K Micrograph of the green wing area. L SEM image of a cut green wing scale showing a multilayer structure in the scale lumen with a very elaborate upper lamina. M P. childrenae oedippus. The dorsal forewings have large, brightly green-colored areas, and the hindwings have bright red spots. N Reflectance spectra of the green and red wing areas. O Micrograph of the green scales, which have a metallic appearance and small domains varying in color. P SEM image of a fractured scale, revealing a 3D-structure below the elaborate upper lamina. Scale bars: A,E,I,M - 1 cm; C,G,K,O - 100 µm; D,H,L,P - 1 µm.