Sex-specific effect of inbreeding on lifespan in Callosobruchus maculatus beetles. Lifespan (mean days, error bars = SE) of females and males in the longevity assays. (A) Assay I, testing three levels of inbreeding. (B) Assay II, testing two levels of inbreeding, (C) Combined effect of inbreeding (two levels) on lifespan. Significant differences between levels of inbreeding, by contrast analysis, are indicated by different letters.