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Table 2 Estimates of mean divergence times, and respective 95% HPD intervals given by Bayesian analyses of cytochrome b nucleotide sequences.

From: The taxonomic status of the endangered thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus(Olfers, 1818), based on molecular and karyologic data

Nodes CLOC UCLN Geological epoch
  Mean 95% HPD Mean 95% HPD  
Hystricomorpha 44.5 39.2–50.1 47.1 39.8–55.3 Middle Eocene
Ctenodactylidae 15.6 12.2–19.3 16.1 10.0–22.2 Middle Miocene
Hystricognathi 41.7 37.4–46.6 43.7 37.9–50.1 Middle Eocene
Bathyergidae 19.3 14.8–24.0 20.1 12.8–27.7 Early Miocene
Caviomorpha 34.8 33.1–36.6 34.8 33.0–36.5 Late Eocene
Erethizontidae 21.2 17.0–25.4 21.0 15.1–27.0 Early Miocene
Erethizontinae 7.4 5.6–9.2 7.7 5.1–10.4 Late Miocene
Coendou + Sphiggurus 4.1 2.9–5.4 4.2 2.5–6.0 Early Pliocene
Coendou 0.1 0.04–0.2 0.1 0.04–0.2 Pleistocene
Sphiggurus 0.3 0.2–0.5 0.3 0.2–0.5 Pleistocene
Octodontoidea 25.8 24.1–27.3 25.8 24.2–27.5 Late Oligocene
Echimyidae 20.0 18.5–21.5 20.0 18.4–21.7 Early Miocene
Ctenomyidae 5.6 4.2–7.2 5.6 3.4–8.1 Late Miocene
Octodontidae 12.3 9.8–14.5 12.5 9.2–16.1 Middle Miocene
Cavioidea 24.1 20.3–27.8 23.1 18.1–28.0 Late Oli.-Early Mio.
Caviidae 19.5 15.5–23.7 19.1 13.6–25.1 Early Miocene
  1. Estimates of divergence times expressed in million years. CLOC: rates conformed to a molecular clock. UCLN: rates uncorrelated, with the rate in each branch independently drawn from a lognormal distribution. HPD: highest posterior densities. The geological epochs corresponding to divergence times followed the 1999 Geologic Time Scale of the Geological Society of America. Oli.: Oligocene; Mio.: Miocene.