Results of character optimization analysis using a recent molecular siluriform phylogeny. Phylogeny redrawn from Sullivan et al. , based on RAG 1 and RAG 2 nuclear data. Red branches indicate venomous lineages, black branches indicate non venomous lineages. Again, the independent evolution of venom glands is found in the Loricarioidei, in the family Callichthyidae. Independent evolution of venom glands must also be ascribed to the family Doradidae, due to its nesting within a clade containing the non-venomous Aspredinidae and Auchenipteridae. Similarly to Fig. 5, the evolution of venom glands at the base of the Siluroidei are obscured, due to poor resolution of basal relationships.