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Table 2 Incongruence between phylogeny and classifications derived from morphological studies and the molecular evidence.

From: Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of ariid catfishes revisited: a comprehensive sampling

  # of taxa in constrained clade SH
(pvalue)
Templeton
(pvalue)
Kailola (2004)    
Phylogeny 48 (34 constrained nodes) 0.000 < 0.0001
Ariopsis 20 0.000 < 0.0001
Arius 7 0.411 0.72–0.88
Aspistor 11 0.000 < 0.0001
Cephalocassis 2 0.000 < 0.0001
Cinetodus 3 0.000 < 0.0001
Hemiarius 4 0.000 < 0.0001
Hexanematichthys 2 0.027 < 0.01
Nemapteryx 5 0.000 < 0.001
Netuma 5 0.018 < 0.01
Sciades 8 0.000 < 0.0001
Marceniuk and Menezes (2007)    
Arius 10 0.004 < 0.04
Arius excluding A. madagascariensis 9 0.341 0.59–0.77
Brustiarius 3 0.000 < 0.0001
Cephalocassis 2 0.000 < 0.0001
Cinetodus 2 0.153 < 0.08*
Cochlefelis 3 0.355 0.31–0.41
Neoarius 6 0.132 0.18–0.25
Notarius 13 0.013 < 0.03
Potamosilurus 4 0.014 0.09–0.13
Sciades 18 0.000 < 0.0001
  1. Results obtained with Templeton and Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) tests of topology congruence between trees constrained under the morphological hypotheses and unconstrained trees (significant p values in bold). Hypothesis testing was performed on Kailola's phylogeny [15] (see Figure 2A) and those genera defined by Kailola [15] and Marceniuk and Menezes [21] that were recovered as non-monophyletic (see also Figure 3). For generic comparisons, only one node was constrained. Taxa in constrained clade include common species only; however, for some comparisons the number of taxa with enforced monophyly is greater than the number of taxa assigned to a particular genus in previous studies due to the greater number of species recognized here (e.g., affinis entities).
  2. *In 52 out of 56 comparisons p value < 0.05
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