Alternative hypotheses of relationships among ariid taxa. (A) Kailola's  phylogeny on 45 Old World and eight New World ariid species based on 57 morphological characters. Taxa examined during this study are in bold; asterisks (*) indicate clades that are congruent with the topologies recovered (see Figure 3). (B) Betancur-R. et al.'s  phylogeny on 46 New World and three Old World ariid species. The summarized phylogeny is derived from trees obtained from mitochondrial (2842 bp), nuclear (978 bp), and morphological (55 characters) datasets. Both studies deal with different taxon-sampling schemes, and both topologies are highly incongruent regarding the position of Galeichthys, Ketengus typus and Cryptarius truncatus.