Phylogenetic tree of 30 mtDNA sequences. Mutations are scored relative to the rCRS For the tree construction, the length variation in the poly-C stretch at np 16193 was not used, while the variation at np 309 is indicated only when phylogenetically relevant. Mutations are shown on the branches. They are transitions unless a base change is explicitly indicated; insertions are suffixed with a plus sign (+) and the inserted nucleotide(s), and deletions are characterized by “d”; back mutations are highlighted by “@”; recurrent mutations (considered in the global phylogeny of the 81 mtDNAs) are underlined. Dating is reported in kilo years. * Sequence incomplete from 411 to 628 and from 16189 to 16290 nps. For the ethnic/geographic origins of the samples, see Additional file 2. Population codes: Th-CI and Th-CII: Central Tharus; Th-E: Eastern Tharus; AP: Andhra Pradesh; UP: Uttar Pradesh; Pun: Punjab; NE-In: North-East Indians; E-In: East Indians; PK: Pakistan; Mal: Malaysia; And: Andaman Islands. Symbols surrounded by a circle are from literature. (a) Nomenclature different from that (M13b) reported in the “mtDNA tree Build 5 (8 Jul 2009)” (http://www.phylotree.org/).