Phylogeny and frequencies (%) of mtDNA haplogroups in the populations studied. Haplogroups (East Asian in grey; West Eurasian in white; Indian in black) were assigned on the basis of both the control-region motifs and the coding-region polymorphisms [see Additional file 1] following published criteria (see Materials and Methods). Coding-region markers are reported as mutated nucleotide positions according to the rCRS  Mutations are transitions unless a base change is explicitly indicated. The 9-bp polymorphism: deletion = del; insertion = ins. Haplogroups with an asterix (*) include samples negative for the examined sub-groups.