Invertebrate laforin orthologs release phosphate from amylopectin. A, Phosphate release measured by malachite green assays using VHR, Hs-laforin, Hs-laforin-C/S, Bf-laforin, Bf-laforin-C/S, Nv-laforin, and Nv-laforin-C/S against amylopectin at their respective optimal pH. WT, wild type. B, Specific activity of VHR, Hs-laforin, Bf-laforin, and Nv-laforin at pH units 5–8. Error bars indicate mean ± SD.