Overview of the distance methods and the tests applied. The picture describes the pure-distance framework developed in the course of the present study for testing methods of deriving host character data and/or distance matrices from associate character data. The location of the methods for character-character transformation (ENT, FRQ, CON, MOD) and for distance-distance (MIN, PBC) transformation is indicated. Integrating the SIZ distances (that are biologically meaningless in the case of cloned sequences) allows us to test for a potential sampling size bias. Abbreviations: CM, character matrix; DM, distance matrix. See the methods section for the abbreviations for the transformation methods.