The most parsimonious tree of haplogroup R7 complete mtDNA sequences observed in the Indian subcontinent. This tree was redrawn manually from the output of median joining/reduced network obtained using NETWORK program (version 4.1) http://www.fluxus-engineering.com. The samples were selected through a preliminary sequence analysis of the control region in order to include the widest possible range of R7 variation, language and geographical groups. Coalescent times were calculated by a calibration method described elsewhere . 16182C, 16183C and 16519 polymorphisms were omitted. Suffixes A, C, G, and T indicate transversions, recurrent mutations are underlined. Synonymous (s) and non-synonymous (ns) mutations are distinguished. DRA-Dravidian, AA-Austro-Asiatic, IE-Indo-European. The ethnic affiliation of the samples is as follows: Lam, Lambadi; As, Asur; Mw, Mawasi; Tor45, Pakistan; Ho, Ho; Ori&A, Oraon; G19, Kanwar; G39, Santhal; G66, Gond; KO, Koya. Two sequences, T35 (Thogataveera) and C35 (Brahmin), were taken from the literature .