Temporal ranges of extant and fossil bears. Extinct genera and species are denoted with a cross (†). Species used in this study are written in bold. Horizontal dark grey bars indicate temporal range based on fossil evidence. Horizontal light grey bars show width of the 95% credibility interval for the molecular divergence time (see also Figure 1). The vertical grey bar illustrates the range of the posterior mean estimate of divergence times for all extant ursine bears (expect polar and brown bear) as well as American giant short-faced bear and spectacled bear. The dark grey box illustrates a time interval of massive global changes around the Miocene- Pliocene boundary.