Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of divergence dates and geographic origins involving Comorian and/or Malagasy taxa (Note that dating methods and calibration points vary among the studies).

From: Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna

Taxa Geographic origin Date estimate Reference
Philepittinae Africa or Indo-Malaya 41.2 ± 2.5 mya [40, 41]
Vangidae Africa or Indo-Malaya (1) 19.7 mya, (16.8–27.0);
(2) 28 ± 4.0 mya
[10, 42]
Bernieridae Africa 25.2 mya (21.4–31.7) [42]
Streptopelia picturata/
Nesoenas mayeri
Africa 20.8 ± 4.1 mya [43]
Coracina cinerea Australasia 18.8 ± 2.2 mya [16, 43]
Hartlaubius auratus Africa or Indo-Malaya 12.9–17 mya [44]
Ispidina madagascariensis Africa 13.5 ± 2.6 mya [9, 45]
Corythornis cristata Africa 5.5 ± 1.1 mya [9, 45]
Indian Ocean Dicrurus Africa 4.7 mya (95% CI: 2.7–7.4) [46]
Motacilla flaviventris Africa 4.5 ± 0.3 mya [47]
Otus Indo-Malaya 3.6 mya (95% HPD: 1.8–6.0) This study
Nectarinia souimanga clade Africa 1.9–3.9 mya [48]
Nectarinia notata clade Africa 1.5–3.5 mya [48]
Zosterops borbonicus
lineage
Indo-Malaya 1.8 mya [49]
Indian Ocean Hypsipetes Indo-Malaya 0.6–2.6 mya [13]
Zosterops maderaspatanus
lineage
Africa 1.2 mya [49]
Anas Australasia No divergence date [50]
  1. mya: million years ago