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Table 1 Diversity of molecular targets for representative members of the three-finger toxin gene family.

From: Accelerated exchange of exon segments in Viperid three-finger toxin genes (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Desert Massasauga)

Toxin Target Reference
Short-, long-chain α-neurotoxins α1-nAChR* [3]
Long-chain α-neurotoxins α7 nAChR* [3]
κ-bungarotoxin α3 and α4 nAChRs* [3]
Muscarinic toxins muscarinic AChRs* [39]
Calciseptine and FS2 toxin L-type calcium channels [40, 41]
Dendroaspin αIIbβ3 integrins [42]
Cardiotoxins phospholipids and glycosphingolipids [43, 44]
Cardiotoxin A5 αvβ3 integrins [45]
Fasciculins acetylcholinesterase [46]
Hemextin AB complex blood coagulation factor VIIa [47]
β-cardiotoxin β-adrenergic receptors [48]
  1. *nAChR, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor