Phylogenetic analysis of C2H2-ZNF genes in human cluster 19.12 and its syntenic counterparts in other mammals. A phylogenetic tree was built using the amino acid sequences corresponding to the zinc finger regions of the various human C2H2-ZNF genes from cluster 19.12 and their syntenic counterparts in chimpanzee, mouse, rat and dog. The tree was generated using a maximum likelihood method (RaxML) and verified using a bayesian method (MrBayes). 346 sites from 101 sequences (including the 20 outgroup sequences from chicken and Xenopus) were used in the analysis. The tree is divided into three major Groups (I-III). A tabulation of the number of genes present in each group is indicated for each species (h: human, p: chimpanzee, m: mouse, r: rat, c: dog). The bootstraps values are indicated for each node on the tree. A small black circle is also represented at each node in cases where the posterior probability value is equal to 1.00. This cluster contains only C2H2-ZNF genes that are either from the KRAB subfamily or that do not encode any conserved N-terminal domain. Next to the name of each C2H2-ZNF gene, the presence of an N-terminal KRAB domain is indicated by a K and number of zinc finger motifs is mentioned. A clear evidence of differential expansion is seen in primates and dog. Loss of C2H2-ZNF in the rodent lineage is also observed.