Comparison of (A) single domestication against (B) multiple domestication hypothesis. The present study supports the hypothesis B for origin of domestic chicken. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the nucleotide diversity (p-black), transition-to-transversion ratio (Ts/Tv-blue) and haplotype diversity (Hd-violet), respectively. The number inside the square indicates average number of mutational events of each group from the outgroup, C. japonica. The sharing of the haplotypes (as exemplified by H_number) indicates the multiple origin of the domestic chicken from different jungle fowls. Low mutational distance, low Ts/Tv ratio and high nucleotide diversity indicate the ancient nature of Indian RJF, G. g. murghi. The dashed line separates domestic chicken (below the line) from other birds.