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Table 4 Biochemical differentiation of Cronobacter from other Enterobacteriaceae.

From: The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. malonaticus subsp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter genomospecies 1

  4-NP-α-Glc VP ADH ODC SAC RAF CEL ARA CIT MR ADO SOR LDC H2S
Cronobacter spp. + + + + + + + + + - - - - -
Buttiauxella agrestis v - - + - + + + + + - - - -
Citrobacter koseri - - v + v - + + + + + + - -
Citrobacter freundii - - v - v v v + v + - + - +
Edwardsiella tarda - - - + - - - - - + - - + +
Enterobacter aerogenes - + - + + + + + + - + + + -
Enterobacter asburiae - - v + + v + + + + - + - -
Enterobacter cancerogenus - + + + - - + + + - - - - -
Enterobacter cloacae - + + + + + + + + - v + - -
Enterobacter gergoviae - + - + + + + + + - - - + -
Enterobacter hormaechei - + v + + - + + + v - - - -
Enterobacter pyrinus v v - + + - + + - v - - + -
Enterobacter helveticus* + - - - - - + + - + - - - -
Enterobacter turicensis* + - - - - - + + - + - - - -
Escherichia coli - - v v v v - + - + - + (+) -
Hafnia alvei (-) (+) - + - - (-) + - v - - + -
Klebsiella pneumoniae (-) + - - + + + + + - + + + -
Kluyvera spp. v - - + + + + + (+) + - v v -
Leclercia adecarboxylata - - - - v v + + - + + - - -
Morganella morganii - - - + - - - - - + - - - (-)
Pantoea spp. - v - - v v v + v v - v - -
Proteus vulgaris + - - v (+) - - - v v - - - +
Providencia spp. - - - - v - - - v + v - - v
Rahnella aquatilis - - v - + + + + (-) - - + - -
Raoultella terrigena - + - (-) + + + + v v + + + -
Salmonella sv. - - v (+) - - v (+) v + - v (+) v
Serratia marcescens v + - + + - - - + (-) v + + -
Yersinia enterocolitica - - - + + - v + - + - + - -
  1. 4-NP-α-Glc, metabolism of 4-NP-α-glucoside; VP, Voges-Proskauer; ADH, arginine dihydrolase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; SAC, acid from sucrose; RAF, acid from raffinose; CEL, acid from cellobiose; ARA, acid from arabinose; CIT, use of citrate as sole carbon source (Simmon's); ADO, acid from adonitol; SOR, acid from sorbitol; LDC, lysine decarboxylase; MR, methly red test; H2S, production of hydrogen sulphide. +, 90–100% positive; (+), 80–90% positive; v, 20–80% positive; (-), 10–20% positive; -, less than 10% positive. Data was derived from this study and from Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th Edition [25]. *Enterobacter helveticus and E. turicensis are novel Enterobacter species [38].