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Table 5 Statistical tests of differences in turning angle between males and females.

From: Quantitative analysis of changes in movement behaviour within and outside habitat in a specialist butterfly

  Null hypothesis tested Test name Test statistic P Reference*
Test Ia Uniform vs unimodal distribution with mean m = 0: females Modified Rayleigh test for uniformity against a unimodal alternative with mean = 0 R = 0.602 < 0.0001 [55] (p. 69)
Test Ib Uniform vs unimodal distribution with mean m = 0: males   R = 0.433 < 0.0001  
Test IIa Symmetrical distribution around 0: females Wilcoxon signed-rank test W+ = 0.747 0.455 [55] (pp. 80–81)
Test IIb Symmetrical distribution around 0: males   W+ = 0.154 0.877  
Test IIIa Goodness-of-fit for von Mises distribution: females Watson's U2 U2 = 0.115 0.020 [69]†
Test IIIb Goodness-of-fit for von Mises distribution: males   U2 = 0.070 0.085  
Test IVa von Mises mean m = 0: females Unnamed specific test E n = -0.182 0.856 [55] (pp. 93–94)
Test IVb von Mises mean m = 0: males   E n = -0.782 0.434  
Test V Equality of von Mises concentrations K i between sexes Fisher f r ; p value estimated by permutation test f r = 3.861 0.052 [55] (pp. 131–132)
  1. * Original and complementary references can be found there.
  2. † [55] (p. 84) presents a mistake.