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Table 1 Molecular divergence time estimates of selected cyprinid nodes.

From: Evolution of miniaturization and the phylogenetic position of Paedocypris, comprising the world's smallest vertebrate

Taxa Substitution rate calibration Fossil calibration
  Crown group Stem group Crown group Stem group
MRCA Cyprinidae and its sister group n.a 34.20 n.a 51.90 a
MRCA Cyprinidae 33.20 33.19 51.9 a 50.38
MRCA Rasborinae (clade A)b 31.89 31.89 49.86 48.42
MRCA Paedocypris and Sundadanio (clade C)b 23.97 23.99 37.47 36.41
MRCA Paedocypris 6.34 6.36 9.91 9.67
Substitution rate 0.0082c 0.0082c 0.0053d 0.0054d
Standard deviation (sd) 0.0032 0.0032 0.0021 0.0021
Smoothing parameter for PL 1.0 1.0 2.5 2.5
  1. This table lists inferred ages in million years for selected cyprinid nodes (nodes MRCA Cyprinidae, MRCA Rasborinae (clade A), MRCA Paedocypris and Sundadanio, and MRCA Paedocypris are labelled 1–4 in Figure 2C), substitution rates, standard deviation and smoothing parameters used for the alternative calibration of a relaxed cyprinid molecular clock (substitution rate calibration and fossil calibration) with penalized likelihood (PL). The chronogram resulting from the substitution rate calibration (crown group) is shown in Figure 2C.
  2. a = fixed root age; b = Clades A and C refer to clade designations given in Figure 1; c = fixed substitution rate (see text for details); d = inferred substitution rate.