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Table 1 Natural and laboratory hybridization between species of Heliconius (see Additional File 1 for specimen details)

From: Natural hybridization in heliconiine butterflies: the species boundary as a continuum

Genus Species 1 Species 2 Geographic relationship No. of natural hybrids Backcrossing in lab or field Laboratory hybrids Molecular evidence Assortative mating F1 female sterility
Eueides
  lybia vibilia sympatric 1 - - - (+) ?
  isabella vibilia sympatric 4 - - - (+) ?
  isabella procula sympatric 1 - - - (+) ?
  pavana vibilia sympatric 1 - - - (+) ?
Heliconius (melpomene-cydno-silvaniform group)
  numata melpomene sympatric 4 - - - (+) ?
  ismenius cydno sympatric - + + - + +
  hecale melpomene sympatric 2 - + - + ?
  hecale elevatus sympatric 3 + - - (+) ?
  hecale atthis sympatric - + + - + +
  ethilla melpomene sympatric 4 + - - + ?
  ethilla numata sympatric 2 - - - (+) ?
  ethilla besckei sympatric 6 + - - (+) ?
  melpomene cydno sympatric 68 + + + + +
  melpomene heurippa sympatric 1 + + + + +
  melpomene pachinus sympatric - + + + + +
  cydno pachinus parapatric 3 + + + + -
  cydno heurippa parapatric - + + + + -
Heliconius (erato-sara-sapho group)
  himera erato parapatric 57 + + + + -
  erato charithonia sympatric 1 - - - + ?
  charithonia peruvianus parapatric 1 + - + (+) ?
  hecalesia hortense sympatric 1 - - - (+) ?
  hecalesia clysonymus sympatric 1 - - - (+) ?
Total     161