Species diversity for each lice suborders. Results are shown before controlling for sampling effort for (A) Ischnocera and (B) Amblycera and after controlling for sampling effort using Google Scholar (GS) citations for (C) Ischnocera and (D) Amblycera. Box plots show tenth, twenty-fifth, the median, seventy-fifth, and ninetieth percentiles, with points for outliers of these percentiles. The significant difference between the means are shown above the box plots (* < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001, n.s. = non-significant). Images of Paraclisis diomedeae (Ischnocera) and Austromenopon affine (Amblycera) obtained from  with permission from V. Smith.