Phylogenetic relationships of living and extinct afrotherians. Adams consensus tree summarizing results from parsimony analyses with all characters unordered (12 MPTs, TL = 19478, CI = 0.50, RI = 0.44, RCI = 0.28) and with some morphological characters ordered and scaled (1 MPT, TL = 18689.54, CI = 0.50, RI = 0.44, RCI = 0.28). Branches depicted with dashes break down in the strict consensus of all 13 trees. Values above and below branches are bootstrap support (1000 replicates) from analysis of the matrix with some multistate characters ordered and scaled (above) and with all multistate characters unordered (below). Herodotiine taxa (alleged stem macroscelideans) are in bold face; asterisks identify "wild card" taxa whose variable positions given different character treatments lead to decreased resolution in the strict consensus tree.