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Table 8 Family frequencies, fitnesses, and change in frequency of policing allele, half-sib families, fixed competition = z. From left to right: Family types, frequencies, frequency of offspring genotypes, allele frequency within families, mean offspring policing level, family fitness, and change in frequency of competitive allele due to selection within the family.

From: The evolution of competition and policing: opposing selection within and among groups

Family Freq Offspring Genotypes Family Mean
   B Bb bb ui ai = aiHS wi. Δui
BB t2 t u --- (u/2) a0+uaa = a2HS (1-ca1HS)(1-z(1-a1HS)) -utcaa/2(1-ca1HS)
Bb 2tu t/2 1/2 u/2 (u/2 + 1/4) a0+aa(u+1/2) = a2HS (1-ca2HS)(1-z(l-a2HS)) -caa/(1 -ca2HS)(1/8+u*t/2)
bb u2 --- t u (u/2+1/2) a0+aa(u+1) = a3HS (1-ca3HS)(1-z(1-a3HS)) -utcaa/2(1-ca3HS)