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Table 2 Differences among P. populi, P. bursarius and P. spyrothecae in key defence-related components of their life history strategies

From: Ecological correlates of sociality in Pemphigus aphids, with a partial phylogeny of the genus

Trait P. populi P. bursarius P. spyrothecae
Gall morphology
  mean volume = 1099 ± 458 mm3 mean volume = 521.0 ± 45.7 mm3 mean volume = 636.7 ± 13.4 mm3
Aphid density Low: 0.03 aphidsmm-3 Moderate: 0.11 aphidsmm-3 High: 0.35 aphids mm-3
Galling period Short: ~2 months Moderate: ~3 months Long: 5–6 months
Demographic synchrony
(Highest proportion represented by a single morph)
Most synchronous: 0.92 ± 0.02 Moderately synchronous: 0.67 ± 0.02 Least synchronous: 0.43 ± 0.01
Period of alate departure Short: 1–2 days Moderate: 30–40 days Long: ~60 days
Reproductive success
(number of alates/emigrants)
Lowest: 41.03 ± 21.18 Intermediate: 59.4 ± 8.8 Highest: 128.6 ± 8.5
First instar Monomorphic with no soldiers Monomorphic with moderately aggressive behavioural soldiers Dimorphic with highly aggressive soldier morph
Overall strategy Hide and run Stay a little, fight a little, but then run Stay and fight