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Table 1 The species of Pemphigus in which soldiers have been sought

From: Ecological correlates of sociality in Pemphigus aphids, with a partial phylogeny of the genus

Species Distribution Host-alternating? Soldiers present? Reference
P. bursarius(Linnaeus) Worldwide Yes Yes [15]
P. dorocola Matsumura Japan, Korea, Siberia Yes Yes [23, 46]
P. gairi Stroyan UK Yes Yes [15]
P. monophagus Maxson Western North America No Yes [31]
P. obesinymphae Aoki & Moran USA Yes Yes [47, 48]
P. phenax Börner & Blunck Europe Yes Yes [15]
P. populi Courchet Europe, Asia Yes No [15]
P. protospirae Lichtenstein Europe, central Asia Yes Yes [15]
P. spyrothecae Passerini Europe to westernSiberia No Yes [22, 24]
  1. The three species that were subject to detailed ecological study are shown in bold typeface. (After Rhoden and Foster [15])