Formation of protoclusters in Takifugu rubripes and Ciona intestinalis: (A): Structure of the genomic scaffolds containing the Takifugu rubripes trTACC1A and trTACC1B genes. Scaffold 12, the site for the trTACC1A gene contains genes found with either homologues or orthologues on the distal long arm of human chromosome 10 and 4p16. This scaffold, therefore, has some of the characteristics of the predicted immediate ancestor of the TACC1/TACC2 chromosomal segment. trTACC1B is found on scaffold 191, which contains orthologues of genes found in the proximal short arm of human chromosome 8. (B): Ciona intestinalis clusters containing genes found in paralogous segments on human 8, 4p16, 10q and 5q.