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Table 10 Predictions about imprinting effects in haplodiploid social insects.

From: Theory of genomic imprinting conflict in social insects

Behavior Expressed in Under condition(s) Action of patrigenes Action of matrigenes
Suppressing excess demands by female larvae (Table 5) Workers Any queen or mate number Less suppressive More suppressive
Suppressing excess demands by male larvae (Table 6) Workers Any queen or mate number More suppressive Less suppressive
Competition among coeval queens or foundresses (Table 2) Reproductive females One queen, singly mated Less competitive More competitive
   One queen, mated more than twice More competitive Less competitive
   Multiple related queens, singly mated Usually less competitive Usually more competitive
   Multiple unrelated queens, singly mated No imprinting No imprinting
Sex ratio: e.g. killing male larvae, harassing male adults (Table 3) Workers Any queen or mate number Favor females Favor males
  Queens Any queen or mate number No imprinting No imprinting
Helping queen(s) or leaving to reproduce (Table 4) Females One queen, singly mated, benefits not sex-biased No imprinting No imprinting
   One queen, singly mated, benefits female biased More altruistic More selfish
   One queen, singly mated, benefits male biased More selfish More altruistic
   One queen, singly mated, split sex ratios More altruistic in female-biased; more selfish in male-biased More selfish in female-biased; more altruistic in male-biased
   One queen, more than 2 mates More selfish More altruistic
   Multiple queens, benefits not sex-biased More selfish More altruistic
  Workers (Table 5) All Aid selfishness Force helping
Adding a daughter queen, or replacing old queen with daughter queen (Table 2 or 4) Daughter queen to be added One queen, singly mated No imprinting or less in favor No imprinting or more in favor
   One queen, more than 2 mates More in favor Less in favor
   Many related queens Depends on specific conditions Depends on specific conditions
  Old queen Any queen or mate number No imprinting No imprinting
  Workers (Table 5) Any queen or mate number Favors daughter queens more Favors old queens more
Become a worker or a queen (Table 2 or 4) Female affected One queen, singly mated No imprinting or worker No imprinting or queen
   One queen, more than 2 mates Queen Worker
   Many related queens, new queens from single generation of old queens Usually queen Usually worker
  Old queen Any queen or mate number No imprinting No imprinting
  Workers (Table 5) Any queen or mate number Favors queen more Favors worker more
Division of colony between mother queen and daughter (Table 4) Daughter queen One queen, singly mated No sex ratio bias Unimprinted Unimprinted
  Daughter queen One queen, multiply mated Favor self more Favor mother queen more
  Mother queen Any mate number Unimprinted Unimprinted
  Workers (Table 5) Any mate number Favor daughter queen more Favor old queen more
Excess food demands (Table 4) Female larvae One queen, singly mated, no sex bias No imprinting No imprinting
   One queen, more than 2 mates More demanding Less demanding
   Many queens Depends on queen number & relatedness Depends on queen number & relatedness
Laying of eggs in queenless colonies Workers One queen, singly mated Lay fewer eggs, help more Lay more eggs, help less
   One queen, mated more than twice Lay more eggs, help less Lay fewer eggs, help more
   Multiple related queens, singly mated Lay more eggs, help less Lay fewer eggs Help more,
Replacement of queen's male eggs by worker's male egg (Table 7) Replacing worker Any queen or mate number Lay male eggs Lay fewer eggs
Policing of worker male eggs in queenright colonies (Table 8) Other workers Any queen or mate number Less prone to police More prone to police
Queen killing to allow worker male production (Table 8) Workers other than the egg layer Any queen or mate number More prone to kill queen? Less prone to kill queen?
Colonymate discrimination Workers Neighboring colonies have related queen, unrelated queen mates Discriminate more Discriminate less
   Most other structures No imprinting No imprinting
Patriline discrimination Workers One queen, multiply mated Discriminate more Discriminate less
Matriline discrimination Workers Multiple singly-mated related queens Discriminate more Discriminate less
  1. When costs and benefits are said to be female biased, it means more female biased than the population sex ratio (f/m > F/M). Males are assumed to be queen produced unless otherwise noted.