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Table 2 Queen and worker means (in mm), Bonferroni t-test and ANCOVA analyses for each morphometrical variable in Metapolybia docilis.

From: Shape differences rather than size differences between castes in the Neotropical swarm-founding wasp Metapolybia docilis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini)

Colony Phase Characters Means ± SD Bonferroni t-test ANCOVA (AL as covariate)
    Queens Workers F P>F MS Effect MS Error F p-level
Pre-emergence 9 queens and 64 workers          
   HL 2.00 ± 0.06 1.95 ± 0.07 1.89 0.06     
   HW 2.42 ± 0.06 2.41 ± 0.07 0.63 0.53     
   IDm 1.00 ± 0.04 0.99 ± 0.04 0.25 0.80     
   PW 1.86 ± 0.07 1.83 ± 0.06 1.79 0.08     
   MTL 0.48 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.03 0.72 0.48     
   AL 2.97 ± 0.12 2.90 ± 0.14 1.53 0.13     
   T2H* 2.02 ± 0.06 1.90 ± 0.10 3.19 0.002 0.05 0.01 7.91 0.01
   T1L* 2.22 ± 0.04 2.16 ± 0.08 2.20 0.03 0.01 0.003 2.41 0.13
   T2BW 0.50 ± 0.02 0.49 ± 0.04 0.77 0.45     
   WL 4.48 ± 0.10 4.40 ± 0.13 1.72 0.09     
Worker-producing 23 queens and 30 workers HL 2.03 ± 0.04 2.02 ± 0.03 1.66 0.10     
   HW 2.44 ± 0.04 2.46 ± 0.05 -1.26 0.21     
   IDm 1.04 ± 0.02 1.04 ± 0.03 1.58 0.12     
   PW 1.28 ± 0.04 1.29 ± 0.07 -0.53 0.60     
   MTL* 0.50 ± 0.02 0.53 ± 0.03 -3.00 0.004 0.01 0.001 11.40  
   AL 3.25 ± 0.07 3.24 ± 0.09 0.60 0.55     
   T2H* 2.11 ± 0.08 1.96 ± 0.07 7.55 <0.001 0.31 0.005 62.74  
   T1L 2.25 ± 0.04 2.23 ± 0.06 1.44 0.16     
   T2BW 0.51 ± 0.02 0.50 ± 0.02 1.74 0.09     
   WL 4.56 ± 0.08 4.54 ± 0.10 0.62 0.54     
Male-producing 4 queens and 30 workers HL 1.95 ± 0.05 2.00 ± 0.04 1.98 0.06     
   HW 2.43 ± 0.07 2.45 ± 0.03 0.82 0.42     
   IDm 1.03 ± 0.03 1.03 ± 0.03 0.12 0.90     
   PW* 1.42 ± 0.05 1.27 ± 0.04 -5.69 <0.001 0.08 0.002 41.39 <0.001
   MTL 0.54 ± 0.03 0.53 ± 0.03 -0.80 0.43     
   AL 3.06 ± 0.15 3.15 ± 0.09 1.73 0.09     
   T2H 1.98 ± 0.07 2.02 ± 0.11 0.60 0.55     
   T1L 2.20 ± 0.12 2.23 ± 0.05 1.02 0.32     
   T2BW 0.50 ± 0.00 0.48 ± 0.02 -0.85 0.40     
   WL 4.53 ± 0.16 4.55 ± 0.09 0.41 0.69     
Absconding 1 queen and 44 workers HL 2.00 1.94 ± 0.05 1.10 0.28     
   HW 2.37 2.40 ± 0.05 -0.67 0.51     
   IDm 1.06 1.02 ± 0.05 0.87 0.39     
   PW 1.25 1.24 ± 0.08 0.05 0.96     
   MTL* 0.56 0.47 ± 0.04 2.19 0.04     
   AL 3.06 3.06 ± 0.11 0.02 0.99     
   T2H 2.00 1.95 ± 0.10 0.49 0.63     
   T1L 2.18 2.15 ± 0.07 0.39 0.70     
   T2BW 0.50 0.49 ± 0.03 0.13 0.90     
   WL 4.25 4.31 ± 0.11 -0.57 0.57     
Swarm 7 queens and 11 workers HL 1.94 ± 0.04 1.92 ± 0.06 1.03 0.32     
   HW 2.37 ± 0.05 2.34 ± 0.08 0.87 0.40     
   IDm* 1.01 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.03 2.69 0.02 0.01 0.001 9.03 0.01
   PW 1.19 ± 0.04 1.18 ± 0.07 0.29 0.78     
   MTL 0.50 ± 0.00 0.48 ± 0.03 1.18 0.26     
   AL 3.00 ± 0.03 2.96 ± 0.03 0.50 0.63     
   T2H* 1.94 ± 0.07 1.82 ± 0.08 3.28 0.005 0.06 0.01 9.71 0.01
   T1L 2.15 ± 0.03 2.14 ± 0.09 0.11 0.91     
   T2BW 0.48 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.03 0.69 0.50     
   WL* 4.41 ± 0.07 4.26 ± 0.14 2.62 0.02 0.07 0.01 10.61 0.01
  1. * Statistically significant