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Figure 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 1

From: Cannibalism in invasive, native and biocontrol populations of the harlequin ladybird

Figure 1

Mean numbers of eggs eaten per individual (± standard error) by first instar larvae of H. axyridis . Note: Results are given for (A) the three spatial levels within Europe expanding range (core, intermediate and front), (B) the low and high individual density treatments in data (A) pooling geographic locations, (C) three types of studied populations (i.e. Native, Invasive and Biocontrol populations), and (D) the low and high density treatments in data (C) pooling the different population types. Bars marked by different letters are significantly different at the 5% threshold (P-levels are mentioned in the main text and Table 1).

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