Female behavior by species and region with conspecific and heterospecific males. The 5 responses include: (A) time with a male (entry tube plus cage, Figure 6), (B) visits to a male’s cage, (C) affiliation, (D) mating attempts, and (E) aggression. Responses (C) and (E) were the proportion of a female’s 2 trials where affiliation or aggression was observed. Each box plot shows the distribution of least squares means (median and inter-quartile range) from 1000 anova models (whiskers represent 10% and 90% values). Each model analyzed a female’s response with either conspecific or heterospecific males on a random subsample of all trials to ensure that focal observations were independent (see Methods: Data analysis). The models for cage visits, affiliation, mating attempts, and aggression were run on transformed values, but back-transformed values are shown.