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Table 1 Fossil records of Solanaceae

From: A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree

Name Age (Mya) Epoch Organ Fossil strata Country Solanaceae Phylogenetic positioning
Datura cf. stramonium 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Kholmech, Dnieper river Belarus Yes Solanoideae
Hyoscyamus sp. 5.3 - 2.6 Pliocene seed Kroscienko Poland Yes Solanoideae
Hyoscyamus niger 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Pont-de-Gail, Cantal France Yes Solanoideae
Physalis alkekengi 7.3 - 3.6 Mio/Pliocene: Messinian-Zanclean seed Saugbagger Flora France Yes Solanoideae
Physalis alkekengi 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Kholmech, Dnieper river Belarus Yes Solanoideae
Physalis alkekengi 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Bezirk Halle Germany Yes Solanoideae
Physalis pliocenica 28.4 - 23.0 Oligocene: Chattian seed Zentendorf Germany Yes Solanoideae
Physalis pliocenica 5.3 - 2.6 Pliocene seed Kroscienko Poland Yes Solanoideae
Physalis pliocenica 11.6 - 7.3 Miocene: Tortonian seed Stare Gliwice Poland Yes Solanoideae
Physalis pliocenica 13.7 - 11.6 Miocene: Serravallian seed Tongrube Forst Neukollm Germany Yes Solanoideae
Physalis pliocenica 13.7 - 11.6 Miocene: Serravallian seed Klettwitz Germany Yes Solanoideae
Physalis alkekengi 7.3 - 3.6 Mio/Pliocene: Messinian-Zanclean seed Nochten-Ost Germany Yes Solanoideae
Physalis aff. alkekengi 5.3 - 3.6 Pliocene: Zanclean seed Baldevo Formation Bulgaria Yes Solanoideae
Scopolia carniolica 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Bezirk Halle Germany Yes Solanoideae
Solanispermum reniforme 48.0 - 46.0 Eocene: Late Ypresian/Early Lutetian seed Lower Bagshot (Arne), Poole Formation UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanispermum reniforme 48.0 - 46.0 Eocene: Late Ypresian/Early Lutetian seed Bournemouth Freshwater Beds, Poole Formation UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanispermum reniforme 44.0 - 40.0 Eocene: Late Lutetian seed Boscombe Sand Formation UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanispermum reniforme 40.4 - 37.2 Eocene: Bartonian seed Highcliffs sands/Cliff End Beds, Barton Formation UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanispermum reniforme 33.9 - 28.4 Oligocene: Rupelian seed Bovey Tracey UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanum arnense 48.0 - 46.0 Eocene: Late Ypresian/Early Lutetian seed Lower Bagshot (Arne), Poole Formation UK Yes Solanaceae
Solanum cf. persicum 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Kholmech Belarus Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 7.3 - 3.6 Mio/Pliocene: Messinian-Zanclean seed Saugbagger Flora France Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Bezirk Halle Germany Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Nordhausen Germany Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Rippersroda Germany Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 5.3 - 2.6 Pliocene seed Tegelen-Sur-Meuse Holland Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Pont-de-Gail, Cantal France Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piazencian seed Pont-de-Gail, Cantal France Yes Solanoideae
Solanum dulcamara 5.3 - 2.6 Pliocene seed Kroscienko Poland Yes Solanoideae
Solanum nigrum 11.6 - 5.3 Miocene: Tortonian-Messinian seed North Rhine, Hambach Germany Yes Solanoideae
Solanum sp. 5.3-2.6 Pliocene seed Limburg & Prussian border Holland Yes Solanoideae
Cantisolanum daturoides 55.0 – 50.0 Eocene: early Ypresian seed London Clay Formation UK No -
Unknown Solanaceae 5.3-2.6 Pliocene seed Limburg & Prussian border Holland No -
Physalis sp. 5.3 - 0.0 Plio/Pleistocene seed Torre Picchio section (P11 & P12), Santa Maria di Ciciliano Formation Italy ? 1 -
Solanum sp. 1.7 - 1.2* Pleistocene seed Olduvai Gorge Tanzania ? 1 -
Physalis sp. 23.0 - 16.0 Miocene: Aquitanian-Burdigalian seed Kireevsky Village, Ob River Russia ? 2 -
Solanum sp. #1 3.6 - 2.6 Pliocene: Piacenzian seed Chernoluch Village, Irtysh River Russia ? 2 -
Solanum sp. #2 16.0 - 11.6 Miocene: Langhian-Serravallian seed Novonikolsky Village, Irtysh River Russia ? 2 -
Solanum sp. #2 16.0 - 11.6 Miocene: Langhian-Serravallian seed Ebargulsky Village, Irtysh River Russia ? 2 -
Solanumxylon paranensis 16.0 - 11.6 Miocene: Langhian-Serravallian wood Paraná Formation Argentina Yes Solanaceae
Solanaceae or Asteraceae 70.6 - 65.5 Cretaceous: Maastrichtian wood Panoche Formation, Del Puerto USA No -
Pollen forma C 72.0 - 68.0 Cretaceous: Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary pollen San Joaquin Valley (D-1 & D-2), Great Valley Sequence USA No -
Datura cf. discolor 37.2 - 33.9 Eocene: Priabonian pollen Florissant Basin USA ? 1 -
Solanum sp. 5.3 - 0.0 Plio/Pleistocene pollen Olduvai Gorge Tanzania ? 1 -
Solandra haeliadum 55.8 -33.9 Eocene leaf Salcedo Italy No -
Solanites brongniartii 33.9 - 23.0 Oligocene flower Aix-en-Provence France No -
Solanites crassus 55.8 - 40.4 Eocene: Lutetian-Ypresian flower Claiborne USA No -
Solanites pusillus 55.8 - 40.4 Eocene: Lutetian-Ypresian flower Claiborne USA No -
Solanites saportanus 55.8 - 40.4 Eocene: Lutetian-Ypresian flower Claiborne USA No -
Solanites sarachaformis 55.8 - 40.4 Eocene: Lutetian-Ypresian flower Claiborne USA No -
  1. List of all known fossil records of Solanaceae. Fossils highlighted in bold were scanned using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography [T.Särkinen, M.Collinson, P.Kenrick, F.Ahmed, unpublished observations]. For full details of the fossil and references to primary sources, see Additional file 1.
  2. 1 No description nor illustration or proper reference to specimen.
  3. 2 Reference not located.