Phylogenetic hypothesis of Carychiidae. A consensus tree representing phylogenetic relationships of 22 Carychium and 16 Zospeum evolutionary lineages (EL) is illustrated. Statistical support is provided at the branches in the following order: Maximum Composite Likelihood bootstrap / Bayesian posterior probability / Maximum Likelihood bootstrap. For each EL, integrative decisions on the lineage assignments (see result section) and the number of individuals analyzed is given in brackets. Codes for the distribution and geographical range evolution are: North America (N; red), Central America (C; orange), Asia (A; cyan), Europe (E; yellow), Dinaric Alps (Di; blue), Alps (Al; purple) and Cantabrian Mountains (Ca; brown). Equally possible range scenarios are separated by an ‘or’. Arrows illustrate the directionality of range shifts. Geographic information and living specimens are shown at the branches giving rise to Carychium and Zospeum, respectively.