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Table 1 Fossil calibration data

From: A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics

Calibrated node / branch Age Ma Age type 95% range Fossil taxon Fossil reference Chronological reference
Stem Moschidae 23 Minimum 23.0–28.4 Ma Dremotherium feignouxi Janis and Scott [20]; Gentry et al. [21] Gradstein et al. [22]
Crown Bovidae 18 Approximate 16–20 Ma Eotragus noyei Solounias et al. [23] Solounias et al. [23]
Stem Cervidae 16.6 Minimum 16.6–28.4 Ma Procervulus praelucidus Ligeromeryx praestans Acteocemas infans Gentry et al. [21] Agustí et al. [24]
Stem Bovini 10.2 Minimum 10.2-16 Ma Selenoportax vexillarius Pilgrim [25]; Bibi [26]; Bibi [27] Barry et al. [28]; Badgley et al. [29]
Stem Caprini 8.9 Minimum 8.9-13.0 Ma Aragoral mudejar Alcalá and Morales [30] Van Dam et al. [31]
Crown Bovini 8.8 Approximate 7-11 Ma Selenoportax giganteus Bibi [27] Barry et al. [28]; Badgley et al. [29]
Stem Hippotragini 6.4 Minimum 6.4–13 Ma Saheloryx tchadensis Saheloryx solidus Tchadotragus sudrei Geraads et al. [32] Lebatard et al. [33]
Crown Tragelaphini 5.72 Approximate 4.7–6.7 Ma Tragelaphus moroitu Tragelaphus sp. cf. spekii Thomas [34]; Haile-Selassie et al. [35] WoldeGabriel et al. [36]; Deino et al. [37]
Crown Reduncini 5.1 Minimum 5.1-7 Ma Redunca ambae Haile-Selassie et al. [35] Renne et al. [38]
Crown Alcelaphini 4.5 Minimum 4.5–7.0 Ma Damalacra neanica Gentry [39]; Vrba [40] Hendey [41]
Crown Hippotragini 3.6 Minimum 3.6–6.5 Ma Hippotragus sp. Oryx sp. Vrba and Gatesy [42]; Gentry [43] Deino [44]
Stem Tragelaphus euryceros 3.4 Minimum 3.4-4.5 Ma Tragelaphus rastafari Bibi [45] WoldeGabriel et al. [46]
Stem Tragelaphus strepsiceros 3.4 Minimum 3.4–4.5 Ma Tragelaphus lockwoodi Reed and Bibi [47] WoldeGabriel et al. [46]
Crown Kobus ellipsiprymnus + K. leche 2 Minimum 2.0–3.0 Ma Kobus ellipsiprymnus Gentry [48] Feibel et al. [49]
Crown Connochaetes spp. 1.15 Minimum 1.15–2.15 Ma Connochaetes taurinus Gentry and Gentry [50]; Vrba [40]; Gentry [51] Hay [52]; Deino [53]
Crown Alcelaphus buselaphus 0.6 Minimum 0.60–1.0 Ma Alcelaphus buselaphus Vrba [40] Clark et al. [54]
  1. Basic information on the 16 fossil calibration points used in this study. Full details of each are given as Additional file 1.