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Table 1 Substitution rates in conifer protein-coding genes compared to angiosperm genes

From: Slow but not low: genomic comparisons reveal slower evolutionary rate and higher dN/dS in conifers compared to angiosperms

Pairwise comparison Gene number dS d4 dN μS(×10-9) μ4D(×10-9) μN(×10-9) dN/dS
Gymnosperms: 3,723 0.1908 0.1769 0.0492 0.68 0.64 0.18 0.3137
Sitka spruce         
Loblolly pine         
Angiosperms: 4,080 2.1846 2.0057 0.2019 9.93 9.12 0.92 0.0924
Arabidopsis      17.02 15.63 1.57  
Poplar      2.84 2.61 0.26  
Fold-change         
Angiosperm:conifers   11.4:1 11.4:1 4.1:1 14.6:1 14.4:1 5.2:1 1:3.4
Arabidopsis:conifers      25.0:1 24.7:1 9.0:1  
Poplar:conifers      4.2:1 4.1:1 1.5:1  
  1. Mean genetic distances at synonymous (dS), 4-fold degenerate (d4) and non-synonymous (dN) sites are expressed as a number of substitutions per site. Absolute substitution rates are expressed in substitutions per synonymous (μS), four-fold degenerate (μ4D) and non-synonymous (μN ) site per year. Species-specific rates for angiosperms were estimated based on the 1:6 difference in evolutionary rate between poplar and Arabidopsis [57, 58].