Species distribution and sampling. Distribution of morphological species in the Rhinella crucifer group, and localities sampled for this study: Rhinella crucifer in yellow, R. inopina in pale blue, R. pombali in dashed orange, R. ornata in solid orange, R. abei in pale orange, and R. henseli in dark blue. Stars indicate type localities. Initials indicate states or departments. Brazil: CE for Ceará, RN for Rio Grande do Norte, PB for Paraíba, PE for Pernambuco, AL for Alagoas, SE for Sergipe, BA for Bahia, MG for Minas Gerais, ES for Espírito Santo, RJ for Rio de Janeiro, SP for São Paulo, SC for Santa Catarina, and RS for Rio Grande do Sul. Paraguay: CA for Canindeyú, AP for Alto Paraguay, and IT for Itapuá. Argentina: MI for Missiones.