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Table 1 Hypotheses for the main effects of several factors on larval time, pupal time, larval growth rate, pupal mass, chill-coma recovery time, and longevity

From: Directional selection on cold tolerance does not constrain plastic capacity in a butterfly

Traits Factors
  Selection regime Inbreeding Rearing temperature Sex Adult temperature Feeding regime
Larval time No No 20°C > 27°C Females > Males - -
Pupal time No No 20°C > 27°C Males > Females - -
Growth rate No No 27°C > 20°C Males > Females - -
Pupal mass No No 20°C > 27°C Females > Males - -
Chill-coma recovery time Controls > Selected Lines No 27°C > 20°C No 27°C > 20°C No
Longevity No No 20°C > 27°C Females > Males 20°C > 27°C Control > Starvation
  1. The hypotheses stated rest on prior results mainly obtained from B. anynana. Selection for increased cold tolerance is expected to have no effect on any trait other than chill-coma recovery time, as no correlated responses to selection were found in a previous study [34]. No inbreeding effects are expected here due to random mating for 14 generations after full-sib matings and thus prior to scoring trait values. Hypotheses regarding temperature, sex and feeding effects are all straight-forward and rest on previous results [e.g. [5, 17, 20, 23, 34, 36, 37]. ‘-‘: Not tested.