Distribution of V . filiformis in the native (green zone) and introduced (red zone) areas. The red points correspond to the introduced populations of V. filiformis mentioned in the references given in the introduction. The orange and green crosses correspond to the populations used during this study from the introduced and the native areas, respectively. Bk = Bakuriani (Samtskhe-Javakhéti region), Bo = Bonn (North Rhine-Westphalia), Bt = Batumi (Adjara region), Kz = Kazbegi (Kazbegi region), Lg = Lagodekhi (Kakheti region), Mz = Mainz (Rhineland-Palatinate), T-U-A = transect Tübingen-Ulm-Augsburg, (Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria), UzT = Uzungöl-Trabzon (Trabzon province).