Geographical distribution of DQB allotypes and haplotypes of mtDNA control region. The inner pie chart indicates the observed frequencies of DQB allotypes in the Japanese black bear. The outer pie chart indicates and the observed haplotype frequencies of the mtDNA control region . Twelve local populations based on the conservation and management units for the Japanese black bear  are shown as bold circles. The number of samples for DQB allotypes from each location is depicted in the center of each corresponding chart, and the number in parenthesis indicates the sample size used for mtDNA analysis of our previous study . Superscript a represents the number of samples analyzed by Ishibashi and Saitoh  in addition to our previous study . Superscript b indicates the number was obtained by identification of individuals using microsatellite analysis . Superscript c indicates the putative pseudogene. Superscript d indicates haplotypes of mtDNA identified by Ishibashi and Saitoh .