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Table 1 Phenological and distributional patterns in the eighteen Cape clades sampled.

From: Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot: the Cape flora

Cape Clade Shift in flowering midpoint Shift in flowering duration Shift in distribution Date estimate (Ma) and method(s) used
Bruniaceae    6.7-4 clock [55]
Crotalarieae 1 b b 40-8.8 NPRS, multidivtime [39, 52]
Disa   27-1 multidivtime [53]
Heliophila   5.8-1.0 NPRS, clock [45]
Indigofera    11-5.5 PL [85]
Moraea   14-4 NPRS [42]
Muraltia   12.7-0.9 multidivtime [40]
Oxalis 3 b b  
Pelargonium    2  
Pentaschistis 5  
Phylica   8-2 NPRS [47]
Podalyrieae   40-10 NPRS, multidivtime [39, 52]
Cape Restionaceae   4 42-1.25 NPRS, clock [54]
Tetraria    b  
  1. For each Cape clade in question, ticks () indicate one or more supported shifts in character state consistent with our past climatic change predictions. Unless otherwise indicated, shifts in flowering midpoint are from the summer towards the spring, shifts in flowering duration are reductions in the number of months of flowering, and shifts in distribution are out of the west and/or into the east. Where available, ranges of published date estimates for the shifts are listed, along with the dating methods included in this range and reference to source publications.
  2. b, clades in which some degree of later backward shifting is exhibited at the distal-most nodes. 1, in the Crotalarieae, the flowering midpoint is reconstructed as shifting from summer to early spring deep within the Cape clade, followed by a much shallower shift to late spring and finally back to early spring. A reduction in flowering duration is reconstructed both deep within the Cape clade, and towards the tips. 2, Pelargonium exhibits a shift from east to west at a single distal-most node. 3, Oxalis exhibits a shift in reconstructed flowering midpoint from mid-May to the May-June boundary and/or to mid-June (i.e. from late-autumn slightly towards the winter). 4, the Cape Restionaceae exhibits a shift in reconstructed flowering duration from one to two months, and from one to five months at a single distal-most node. In the only instance where such shifts do not involve very shallow nodes, a later shift back to one flowering month is observed. 5, Depending on the nodes considered either side of those for which states are undetermined, Pentaschistis either exhibits a very slight shift in flowering midpoint from summer towards the spring, or an equally slight shift from spring towards the summer.