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Table 4 Divergence times for major split in the Plasmodium timetree with a comprehensive data set including Lemurs and Gorillas

From: Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle

Calibrations: node 73, min 6, max 14.3;   MDT BEAST  
Divergence Node Node age (Mya) 95% CrI Node age (Mya) 95% CrI cCrIs
Origin of Southern Asia Macaca species 72 8.57 5.75-11.06 5.17 2.63-8.45 2.63-11.06
Split P. cynomologi-P. vivax 68 5.25 3.23-7.44 2.61 0.89-4.64 0.89-7.44
Origin Catarrhini parasite (excluding P. ovale) 74 19.97 13.93-26.49 12.97 7.54-20.73 7.54-26.49
Split Papio/Macaca 73 12.68 9.13-14.25 8.44 6.00-12.83 6.00-14.25
Lorisiforms-Catarrhini parasite 76 24.66 16.95-34.10 17.90 9.91-28.94 9.91-34.10
Radiation Lorisiforms parasite 61 20.91 13.98-29.11 14.87 7.62-24.30 7.62-29.11
Radiation Apes parasite 54 17.36 10.54-26.35 14.13 6.99-23.65 6.99-26.35
Radiation Rodents parasite 57 16.15 9.61-24.29 10.20 4.19-17.65 4.19-24.29
Split P. falciparum-P. reichenowi 46 9.02 4.18-15.86 5.00 2.23-8.55 2.23-15.86
Origin of P. falciparum in humans 40 1.35 0.26-3.63 0.56 0.14-1.10 0.14-3.63
Origin of P. falciparum in humans & bonobos 41 2.94 0.83-6.78 1.21 0.39-2.23 0.39-6.78
Origin of Plasmodium in mammals 78 31.29 21.48-44.16 25.29 13.67-40.79 13.67-44.16
Calibrations: node 73, min 6, max 14.3; node 74, min 23.5   MDT BEAST  
Divergence Node Node age (Mya) 95% CrI Node age (Mya) 95% CrI cCrIs
Origin of Southern Asia Macaca species 72 8.89 6.51, 11.34 8.61 6.22, 11.13 6.22-11.34
Split P. cynomologi-P. vivax 68 5.42 3.58, 7.56 4.56 2.41, 7.01 2.41-7.56
Origin Catarrhini parasite (excluding P. ovale) 74 25.51 23.56, 30.95 25.85 23.50, 30.25 23.5-30.95
Split Papio/Macaca 73 13.57 11.87, 14.28 12.86 10.59, 14.30 10.59-14.30
Lorisiforms-Catarrhini parasite 76 31.84 26.93, 41.43 33.47 26.66, 41.47 26.66-41.47
Radiation Lorisiforms parasite 61 27.06 21.83, 35.49 27.72 20.11, 35.73 20.11-35.73
Radiation Apes parasite 54 22.90 16.05, 32.70 25.23 15.85, 34.44 15.85-34.44
Radiation Rodents parasite 57 21.37 14.88, 30.11 18.28 10.08, 27.59 10.08-30.11
Split P. falciparum-P. reichenowi 46 12.37 6.48, 20.06 8.97 5.23, 13.33 5.23-20.06
Origin of P. falciparum in humans 40 1.95 0.40, 5.08 0.98 0.32, 1.78 0.32-5.08
Origin of P. falciparum in humans & bonobos 41 4.25 1.34, 9.19 2.15 0.92, 3.54 0.92-9.19
Origin of Plasmodium in mammals 78 39.80 32.22, 52.77 46.09 33.74, 58.74 33.74-58.74
  1. Time estimates and their credibility intervals (CrIs) were estimated with MultiDivTime (MDT) and BEAST using two calibration points (6-14.3 Mya for the pathogens of Papio and Macaca; and a minimum of 23.5 for the divergence of the pathogens of human and macaques). Combined CrIs (cCrIs) are also shown. Node numbers refer to additional file 7.