Malin and laforin orthologs. A) H. sapiens and B. floridae malin were aligned using MAFFT and displayed in MacVector. Predicted secondary structure is displayed over the sequences with ovals representing α-helices and arrows representing β-sheets. Grey structural elements are shared by H. sapiens and B. floridae malin, black domains are specific to B. floridae malin, and tan domains are specific to H. sapiens malin. The RING domain is highlighted in light red and the NHL domains are highlighted in light green. B) Unrooted phylogeny of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) sequences was generated as described in Methods. Organisms containing laforin are boxed in yellow. Alveolates are shaded with a gray background and vertebrates with a brown background. Bootstrap values are indicated by color-coding according to the insert. C) Unrooted phylogeny of SSU rRNA as in B), but organisms containing malin are boxed in green.