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Table 1 Sampling location and five parameters of genetic diversity for 41 populations of Melanargia galathe a from its western Palaearctic distribution area and one population of M. lachesis from the Pyrenees: number of individuals analysed (N), mean number of alleles per locus (A), percentage of expected (H e ) and observed (H o ) heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci not exceeding 95% (P95) and total number of polymorphic loci (Ptot)

From: From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

Region Location Running Nr. Long. (N)
Lat. (E/W)
Date of sampling N A H e (%) H o (%) P95 (%) Ptot (%)
Morocco M-Oukaimeden 1 31.12; 7.52W 23-V-05 36 2.33 20.5 20.6 46.7 46.7
  M-Naour 2 32.29; 5.56W 26-V-05 36 2.33 17.0 13.5 33.3 53.3
  M-Bekrite 3 33.05; 5.13W 29-V-05 36 2.53 17.2 18.5 33.3 53.3
  M-Timhadite 4 33.14; 5.03W 29-V-05 36 2.33 18.7 17.7 33.3 60.0
Tunisia T-Ain Draham 5 36.46; 8.42E 23-V-10 27 2.20 17.6 15.6 40.0 53.3
  T-Nebeur 6 36.18; 8.46E 26-V-10 40 2.00 12.3 9.9 26.7 60.0
  T-Table de Yagurta 7 35.45; 8.23E 25-V-10 40 2.13 13.6 10.6 40.0 53.3
  T-Thala 8 35.34; 8.41E 25-V-10 40 1.80 12.5 12.1 26.7 40.0
  T-Béja 9 36.44; 8.54E 28-V-10 40 1.86 13.6 9.8 33.3 40.0
Sicily I-Valledomo 10 37.45; 13.53E 4-VII-07 40 2.13 14.5 13.2 40.0 53.3
  I-Francavilla 11 37.53; 15.07E 5-VII-07 30 2.26 17.8 14.8 26.7 66.7
  I-Reitano 12 37.58; 14.20E 26-VI-07 40 2.00 15.0 12.2 33.3 46.7
Italy I-St. Giorgio 13 38.17; 15.59E 6-VII-07 40 2.13 17.1 17.2 33.3 40.0
  I-Mormanno 14 39.54; 15.58E 7-VII-07 40 2.66 21.3 15.6 53.3 73.3
  I-Napoli 15 41.08; 14.19E 7-VII-07 20 2.13 18.2 13.3 40.0 46.7
  I-Rieti 16 42.25; 12.53E 8-VII-07 40 2.20 17.8 17.4 33.3 53.3
  I-Consuma 17 43.48; 11.36E 8-VII-07 40 2.20 19.2 17.5 40.0 60.0
  I-Verona 18 45.31; 10.55E 9-VII-07 40 2.13 17.7 13.5 40.0 46.7
France F-Col de Tende 19 44.09;7.34E 31-VII-03 40 2.13 17.7 12.1 33.3 40.0
  F-Condat 20 45.20; 2.45E 11-VII-08 27 1.86 13.8 10.6 26.7 46.7
  F-Lorry 21 49.00; 6.06E 17-VI-03 40 2.06 17.6 15.3 33.3 40.0
Central Europe L-Niederanven 22 49.39; 6.16E 13-VI-03 32 2.00 18.4 17.1 33.3 40.0
  D-Niederehe 23 50.18; 6.48E 18-VII-03 18 1.86 18.2 16.7 33.3 33.3
  D-Bossler 24 48.36; 9.36E VII-04 40 2.00 18.5 17.0 40.0 40.0
  D-Buchenberg 25 50.43; 11.40E VII-03 40 2.33 19.3 16.4 33.3 40.0
  A-Jadersdorf 26 46.40; 13.18E 18-VIII-04 40 2.00 13.5 12.6 33.3 33.3
  A-Hochobir 27 46.30; 14.30E 23-VIII-04 40 2.06 14.6 13.3 26.7 46.7
  A-Schöckl 28 47.12; 15.28E 22-VIII-04 40 2.13 17.0 15.7 33.3 40.0
  A-Leithagebirge 29 47.57; 16.39E 31-VII-03 14 1.86 14.8 13.6 33.3 40.0
Hungary H-Csákvár 30 47.24; 18.26E 13-VII-04 40 2.33 17.2 15.9 33.3 46.7
western Balkans SLO-Postojna 31 45.47; 14.12E 15-VII-04 40 2.00 14.4 13.5 33.3 40.0
  MNE-Durmitor 32 43.10; 19.08E 10-VII-03 12 1.86 14.8 14.5 26.7 33.3
Romania RO-Hoteni 33 47.38; 24.02E 25-VII-04 40 1.93 17.9 20.5 33.3 33.3
  RO-Cluj 34 46.45; 23.35E 23-VII-04 40 2.13 18.3 17.7 40.0 40.0
  RO-Voslobeni 35 46.40; 25.38E 29-VII-04 40 1.86 18.5 18.6 33.3 40.0
  RO-Pasul Predelus 36 45.35; 26.09E 31-VII-04 40 2.33 20.4 18.8 33.3 40.0
  RO-Porta di Fier Transilvanici 37 45.31; 22.39E 15-VII-04 40 2.06 19.1 19.2 33.3 40.0
  RO-Inelet 38 44.58; 22.29E 9-VIII-04 19 1.80 19.2 16.0 33.3 40.0
Bulgaria BG-Milanovo 39 43.05; 23.23E 10-VIII-04 40 2.06 17.8 17.3 33.3 40.0
  BG-Karandila 40 42.43; 26.20E 3-VIII-04 40 2.06 18.4 17.1 33.3 40.0
  BG-Trigrad 41 41.36; 24.17E 7-VIII-04 40 2.06 16.5 16.5 33.3 33.3
lachesis E-Col de Perbes* 42 42.23; 1.13E 19-VII-03 40 2.26 20.8 17.6 40.0 40.0
  1. * M. lachesis