Biogeographic scenario of Melanargia galathea and M. lachesis. Range expansions and retractions of M. galathea and M. lachesis (on the Iberian Peninsula) during the past ice-ages (a-c) and fluctuations of marine isotope stages (d) (redrawn after Gibbard & van Kolfschoten ). Refugia are marked by grey areas, expansions/retractions by arrows. 4a) Günz and Mindel refugia in Iberia (M. lachesis) and the Maghreb (M. galathea); expansion from the eastern Maghreb to Sicily during the Mindel/Holstein transition; Holstein expansion over Europe, but retraction in the Maghreb to the west. 4b) Riss refugia in Iberia (M. lachesis) and the western Maghreb, Sicily and southern Balkans (M. galathea; Riss/Eem transition expansion from Sicily to the eastern Maghreb; Eem expansion of the southern Balkan group over major parts of Europe including peninsular Italy. 4c) Würm refugia in Iberia (M. lachesis) as well as western and eastern Maghreb, Sicily, peninsular Italy, southwestern Alps and Balkan area (M. galathea); postglacial expansion from Iberia (M. lachesis), peninsular Italy and the Balkan area (M. galathea).