SEMs of ephippial females of extant Daphnia. a-b. Daphnia (Daphnia) pulex, general view of ephippial female and ephippium. c-d. Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) magna, general view of ephippial female, ephippium and its sculpture. Red lines show the orientation of the egg axes. White scale bars: 1 mm for a, c-d; 0.1 mm for b.