Plot of d
values from pairwise PAML analyses for putative genes in the HmYb (A) and HmB (B) loci. Pairwise tests between three polymorphic Heliconius species (H. melpomene, H. numata, H. erato) and two H. melpomene races (H. m. cythera and H. m. malleti) exhibiting higher than average d
values, are indicated by putative gene names. While the majority of genes found in these color-patterning loci appear slow evolving and constrained, pairwise tests across species and races consistently highlighted the same outliers: hypothetical protein HM00021 (A), Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) (A), fizzy-like (fzl) (A), and kinesin (B). Other outliers, including epoxide hydrolase (B), show rapid rates of evolution in comparison to other genes for pairwise analyses only between H. m. melpomene and H. numata. The dashed line represents ω = 1.