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Table 1 Literature survey of studies testing for constitutive (a) and inducible (b) costs of immunity in arthropods.

From: Successfully resisting a pathogen is rarely costly in Daphnia magna

Ref Species Cost ? Selection Challenge Environment Observations
a Constitutive cost      
[35] Plodia interpunctella development timea, longevity, reproduction resistance virus - Standard lab conditions adevelopment time difference tend to decrease after two more generations
[41] Plutella xylostella growth rate b , survival b resistance B. thuringiensis - Poor quality food bcost of resistance for one population, advantage for the other
[41] Plutella xylostella survival c resistance B. thuringiensis - larval competition ccost of resistance for one population on two tested
[55] Biomphalaria glabrata fertility, mortality resistance Schistosoma - Standard lab conditions includes a susceptiblity-selected control (different effect)
[34] Aedes aegypti early pupation = low melanization early/late pupation beads to test melanization Standard lab conditions no control for wounding
[6] Tenebrio molitor cuticular colord - - Standard lab conditions dcuticular color is correlated with investment in immunity; positively correlated with longevity, no effect on fecundity
[56] Anopheles gambiae longevity, fecundity, mating success resistance Plasmodium - Standard lab conditions includes a susceptiblity-selected control (same effect)
[36] Drosophila melanogaster competitive ability against controlse, survival, development time, fecundity, size, fluctuating asymetry resistance A. tabida - Various food levels and competition ecost found only for lowest food levels
[37] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity, egg viability, starvation tolerance resistance L. boulardi - Standard lab conditions  
[37] Drosophila melanogaster competitive ability f resistance L. boulardi - Various food levels and competition fcost found only for lowest food levels
[55] Drosophila melanogaster resistance, survival, competition abilityg high/low densities - Standard lab conditions gindividuals selected at high densities fare actually better
[57] Drosophila melanogaster fecundityh, longevity resistance Macrocheles - High/Low temperatures hcost found only for high temperature
[58] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity - - Standard lab conditions  
[8] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity i - - High/Low food levels icost found only for low food
[59] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity j , competitivity j resistance T. kingi - High/Low larval competition jcost found only for high competition level
[39] Drosophila melanogaster longevityk, body mass, development timel, egg viability, productivity, mating resistance P. aeruginosa - Standard lab conditions kcost found only for females; lreduced development time for selected lines
[60] Acyrthosiphon pisum fecundity, resistance to different parasites - - High/low food quality  
[53] Acyrthosiphon pisum fecundity, survival without foodm, sizem, competitive abilityn - - Standard lab conditions mresistance is actually positively correlated with this trait; nunpublished data cited
[32] Daphnia magna mortality, age of 1st reproduction, fecundity - - Standard lab conditions  
[32] Daphnia magna competitive ability - - High densities, very low food  
[31] Daphnia magna fitness - - Low quality natural environment  
[33] Daphnia magna survival, fitness +/- O. bayeri - low density, high food  
b Inducible cost      
[40] Tenebrio molitor ? o - generalist fungus solitary/gregarious oassume plasticity = cost
[6] Tenebrio molitor longevity, fecundity - Nylon inserted Standard lab conditions  
[61] Tribolium castaneum fecundity; developmentp, survivalp - heat killed bact injected Standard lab conditions pcosts shown in 1 line only
[62] Bombus terrestris q survival r - LPS injected, beads inserted High/zero food levels qsterile workers; rcost found only when starved
[63] Aedes aegypti fecundity s - beads inserted Standard lab conditions sdepend on the charge of the bead
[8] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity t - P. rettgeri injected High/low food levels tcosts result from wounding only, just after injection (not lasting)
[59] Drosophila melanogaster fecundity, survival resistance T. kingi exposure T. kingi Standard lab conditions  
[25] Daphnia magna mortality - exposure P. ramosa low food and high densityu uhigh density for first experiment only
[31] Daphnia magna fitness - exposure O. bayeri Low quality natural environment  
  1. Details given for each study are: the species studied (Species), whether a cost was found or not (Costs?: traits for which a cost was detected are bolded), whether the lines used in the experiment where selected before, and if so the object of the selection (Selection), how the animal's immunity was challenged (Challenge) and finally what were the environmental conditions tested (Environment).
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