Experiment 2 results (two host genotypes and multiple parasite exposures, see text). The black bar represents means for unexposed controls. For the exposed individuals, light grey bars are means for uninfected and dark grey bars are means for infected. For each genotype, the exposure order is always controls, single exposure (uninfected/infected), double exposure (uninfected/infected) and quadruple exposure (uninfected/infected). Panel A presents for each category the average age at which females released their first clutch. Panel B presents for each category the average age on the day of death. Panel C presents for each category the mean reproductive success i.e. the number of offspring produced during the entire lifetime. Bars are standard errors.