Chronogram for the Anoplura. Shown is the Bayesian topology resulting from analysis of the 3-gene data set (partitioning the data by gene and by codon for the protein coding genes COI and EF-1α) in BEAST , which differs only slightly from the topology shown in Figure 2 (there is weak support for these differences; see text). Divergence times were estimated using three calibrations (94-101 Ma for the spilt between Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura, 20-25 Ma for the split between Old World Monkey lice and hominoid lice, and 5-7 Ma for the split between human and chimpanzee-associated Pediculus lice), indicated by filled circles at nodes. Taxon colors correspond to louse family indicated in Figure 2 and host associations are indicated to the right of each clade. The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary is indicated at 65 Ma by the dark gray vertical bar. Upper and lower bounds of the 95% highest posterior density interval (95% HPD) for each node are available in Additional File 5.